Professor Julien S Baker

Professor in Applied Physiology, Director of the Research Institute for Clinical Exercise and Health Science

437A Almada Hamilton Campus
Tel 01698 283100
Julien Baker


Professor Julien Baker has investigated the mechanical and pharmacological aspects of strength and power. This work has identified serious errors in the measurement of power using the Monark cycle ergometer and is emphasising the need for a new and more accurate approach to this challenge. 

The influence of the work conducted by Professor Baker and his colleagues which identified the need to account for fat-free mass and the significant involvement of the arms in the ergometric assessment of power, work output and efficiency, has been substantial. These findings have outlined the considerable differences in haematological, hormonal and biochemical changes in acute and long term exercise when the correct morphological and physiological considerations are considered. Professor Baker’s current research interests include the use of high intensity exercise models in the management of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. The models have been used extensively in both children and adolescent populations. In recognition of his research achievements, Professor Baker has been appointed to the editorial board of several UK and international journals and is a former Director of Research for the Welsh Institute of Sport, Health and Exercise Science ( 

Professor Baker and colleagues have investigated anabolic steroid users who were supplementing their androgen regimen with insulin and growth hormone. They also identified a large number of recreational gym users who use pharmacological substances. Working with the National Drug Testing Centre, King’s College London (Professor Cowan and Dr Kicman), this initial finding provided the Group with a unique opportunity to monitor the physiological and biochemical implications of this performance-enhancing drug regimen and remains, to the best of our knowledge, the first of its kind. This research has attracted the attention of the international scientific community and the interest in Wales and Scotland has been widespread as evidenced by the involvement of Group members in many radio and national television programmes. Particular concern was voiced by members of the Welsh Assembly Government and, as a consequence, we are currently involved in a process that will identify strategies aimed at counteracting this kind of drug abuse. 

Professor Baker is a member of the Physiological societies of Britain and USA.

  • Qualifications
    1st degree: BA (Hons)

    Higher degree: MSc

    Other: PhD, DSc
  • Research Interests
    • High intensity exercise
    • Immune function and hormonal control of exercise
    • Cardiovascular disease in children/ ethnic minorities
    • Oxidative stress and muscle damage
    • Steroid abuse
    • Exercise biochemistry 

    Drug Control Centre, Kings College, University of London,Oxford University Biochemistry Department,Imperial College of Medicine, London,University of Wales School of Medicine, Cardiff,University of Wales School of Medicine, Medical Physics Dept, Cardiff, University of Wales Institute Cardiff, St Mary’s Hospital London, LLandough Hospital, Lipid Research Unit., Royal Gwent Hospital, Diabetes Research Institute, Newport, Royal Glamorgan Hospital Biochemistry Department,Royal Glamorgan Hospital Orthopaedic Department, University of Essex, Department of Sports Medicine, Royal Liverpool University Hospital Clinical Chemistry, Queens University Belfast, Dept of Clinical Biochemistry,Bristol University Medical School, Paediatric Department

    University of Melbourne, University of Marseille France, University Blaise Pascal, France Laboratory of Exercise Biology, McMaster University, Canada, Medical School, Children’s Health and Nutrition Centre, Free University Berlin, Colorado State University, Dept of Biological Sciences, University of Western Sydney

    Computing, Engineering, Life Sciences, Psychology, Sociology (Prof Avril Taylor), immunology, and the Health School (Prof Colin Martin) 

  • Research activity output journals


    1. Julien S Baker, Bruce Davies, Duncan Buchan and Lon Kilgore (2013) Anaerobic performance in obese populations: underestimation of power profiles. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine Volume 4(1):82-84
    2. Hayes LD, Grace FM, Sculthorpe N, Herbert P, Ratcliffe JW, Kilduff LP, Baker JS. (2013)The effects of a formal exercise training programme on salivary hormone concentrations and body composition in previously sedentary aging men.Biomedical and Life Sciences Springerplus. 2013 Dec;2 (1):18. Epub 2013 Jan 22. PubMed PMID: 23396630.
    3. Baker JS, Davies B, McCormick MC, Graham M (2013) An elevated systolic blood pressure response at 8 minutes in full contact exercise may identify hypertensive subjects. Res Sports Med (1):1-11. doi: 10.1080/15438627.2012.738440. PubMed PMID: 23286418.
    4. Grace, FM; Buchan, D; Kilgore L and Baker JS (2013) The Obesity Paradox – Methodological considerations and potential physiological mechanisms Journal of Sports Medicine and Doping Studies. Invited Editorial; 3: e 133. doi:10.4172/2161-0673.1000e133 1-3
    5. Marie Clare McCormick and*Baker JS 1 (2013) Resistive force selection and upper body contraction dynamics: Relationships with anaerobic cycle ergometry performance. Routledge Handbook of Ergonomics in Sports and Exercise: Edited by Professor Youlian Hong ISBN 978-0-415-51863-5 Section 5, Chapter 17, 1-6
    6. R.S. Gordon1, K.L. Franklin1, J.S. Baker2 (2013) Measurement of power in mechanically braked cycle ergometers for performance evaluation. 1. Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Wales, UK 2. Institute for Clinical Exercise, University of the West of Scotland, Scotland, UK. Routledge Handbook of Ergonomics in Sports and Exercise: Edited by Professor Youlian Hong ISBN 978-0-415-51863-5 Section 5, Chapter 18, 6-14
    7. Zoe Harcombe, Julien S Baker and Bruce Davies (2013) Food for thought: Have we been giving the wrong dietary advice? Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) 4, (3) 240-244
    8. Houston EL, Baker JS, Buchan DS, Stratton G, Fairclough SJ, Foweather L, Gobbi R,Graves LE, Hopkins N, Boddy LM (2013) Cardiorespiratory fitness predicts clustered cardiometabolic risk in 10-11.9-year-olds. Eur J Pediatr. 2013 Feb 26. [Epub ahead of print]
    9. Buchan, D.S., Thomas, N.E., Kilgore, L. and Baker JS (2013) Traditional and Novel risk factors of Cardiovascular Disease and Their Associations between Obesity, Physical Activity and Measures of Physical Fitness. Published in “Youth: Practices, Perspectives and Challenges” Nova Scientific publications, New York, USA. Invited Book Chapter, Chapter 2, pages 17-36 ISBN 978-1-62618-067-3
    10. David Hettle1, Linda Linton2, Baker JS, Orna Donoghue3 (2013) THE EFFECT OF KINESIOTAPING ON FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE INCHRONIC ANKLE INSTABILITY-PRELIMINARY STUDY Journal of Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle Volume 1, Issue 1, pages 2-5, 1000105
    11. Lawrence D Hayes1,2, Fergal M Grace1, Nick Sculthorpe1,3, Peter Herbert4, Liam P Kilduff5, and Julien S Baker1 (2013) Does Chronic Exercise Attenuate Age-Related Physiological Decline in Males? Research in Sports Medicine
    12. Lawrence D Hayes1,2, J LonKilgore1, Fergal M Grace1, John D Young3, Julien S Baker1 (2013) Salivary hormone response to maximal exercise at two different time points during the day Sport Scientific and Practical Aspects: The International Journal of Kinesiology 10, Issue 1: 25-30
    13. Duncan S Buchan1*, Stewart Ollis 1, John D Young1, Stephen-Mark Cooper2, Julian PH Shield3 and Julien S Baker1 (2013) High intensity interval running enhances measures of physical fitness but not metabolic measures of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy adolescents. BMC Public Health PMID: 23705968.
    14. Kilduff LP, Finn CV, Baker JS, Cook CJ, West DJ (2013) Preconditioning Strategies to
    Enhance Physical Performance on the Day of Competition. International J Sports Physiology and Performance 2013 May 20. PubMed PMID: 23689163.
    15. Marie Clare McCormick, Hugh Watson, Julien S. Bakera (2013) Surface electromyographic activities of upper body muscle during high intensity cycle ergometry. Research in Sports Medicine
    16. Duncan S. Buchan,1 John D. Young,1 Lynne M. Boddy,2 Robert M. Malina,3,4 and Julien S. Baker1 (2013) Fitness and Adiposity Are Independently Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Youth. BioMed Research International Volume 2013, Article ID 261698, 6 pages 1-6
    17. Julien S Baker, Bruce Davies, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Del P. Wong, Duncan S Buchan and Lon Kilgore (2013) Strength and body composition changes in early career weight trainees: Comparison of one set and three set resistance-training programmes BioMed Research International Volume 2013
    18. Lawrence D Hayes1, Gordon F Bickerstaff2, and Baker JS (2013) Acute program variables and subsequent hormonal response to maximize resistance exercise adaptations. Journal of Sports Medicine and Doping Studies
    19. Lawrence D Hayes1,2 Fraser E Houston3 and Julien S Baker1(2013) Genetic Predictors of Adenosine Monophosphate Deaminase Deficiency. Journal of Sports Medicine and Doping Studies

    Full Publication list. 

  • Research activity output abstracts

    1. Herbert P, Ratcliffe J, Sculthorpe N, Baker, JS, Richards, J and Grace F. The effects of a 6 week ACSM intervention on aerobic fitness in sedentary older men. European College of Sport Science annual conference, Barcelona 26-29th June 2013.
    2. Ratcliffe J, Sculthorpe N, Herbert P, Baker JS, Richards J, New K and Grace F. The effects of 6 week ACSM intervention on standard cardiovascular measurements in sedentary older men. European College of Sport Science annual conference, Barcelona 26-29th June 2013.
    3. Herbert P, Grace F, Ratcliffe J, Baker JS, Richards J and Sculthorpe N. The effects of a 6 week ACSM intervention on measures of power output in sedentary older men. European College of Sport Science annual conference, Barcelona 26-29th June 2013.
    4. Herbert P, Sculthorpe N, Ratcliffe J, Baker JS, Richards, J and Grace F. The effects of a 6 week ACSM exercise intervention on body composition in sedentary older men. European College of Sport Science annual conference, Barcelona 26-29th June 2013.
    5. Buchan, Duncan S, Boddy, Lynne M, Wedderkopp, Niels and Baker, Julien S. Independent Associations between Cardiorespiratory fitness, Waist Circumference, BMI and clustered Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Adolescents." Pediatric Work Physiology Group Conference, Portugal, 2013.
    6. Singh Judge, Amarpreet, Baker, Julien S and Buchan, D.S. (2013). Prevalence of Health Risks Associated with CVD And Type II Diabetes in a Scottish South Asian Population. UWS Research Student Conference May 31st.

    Full publication list.

  • Research activity output conference presentations


    1. Baker JS1 and Bruce Davies1 (2006) Health Status of Welsh Schoolchildren. Barriers to Physical Activity and Lifestyle changes. Presented to the Welsh Institute of Sport Health and Exercise Sciences Research Committee. School of Medical Biosciences, University of Wales College Cardiff. December 18th.
    2. Baker JS Graham M and Davies B (2007) Steroid and prescription medicine abuse in recreational gym users: Lessons to be learned from a regional study in South Wales. Paper presented at Performance and Image Enhancing Drugs in the 21st Century Conference. The Centre for Public Health, Liverpool John Moores University, 5th October. Paper published in conference proceedings.
    3. Baker JS1 (2008) Physiological and mechanical issues related to the measurement of anaerobic capacity in elite athletes. Invited keynote lecture at Ossur International Sports Medicine Conference. Post graduate research centre, Royal Glamorgan Medical School 18th April.
    4. Baker JS (2008) Upper body contribution to the measurement of leg power during high intensity cycle ergometer exercise. What are the issues? Invited keynote presentation at American Society of Exercise Physiologists National Conference. April 10-12 in Duluth, MN USA (Presented with International Researcher Award by the American Society of Exercise Physiologists)
    5. Baker JS and Davies B (2008) Short term high-intensity cycle ergometer exercise: Interrelationships with peripheral blood markers of central fatigue. Paper presented at the Welsh Institute of Sport and Exercise Sciences Conference, University of Wales, Swansea, July 4th. Published in conference proceedings.
    6. Baker JS (2009) Physiological and biochemical assumptions in the measurement of human power. Invited key note presentation to the Post Graduate medical research Centre, Royal Glamorgan Hospital 18th March.
    7. Baker JS (2009) Physiology of power in cycle ergometry. Invited key note presentation to the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGISTS 11th ASEP Annual National Conference April 2 - 4, 2009 Midwestern State University, Texas USA.
    8. Baker JS (2009) Metabolic implications of variation resistive force application during high intensity cycle ergometry Invited key note presentation Welsh Institute of Sport and Exercise Science (WISHES) annual conference, Aberystwyth University, July 3rd.
    9. Baker JS (2009) Power assessment in Humans what are we measuring? Invited key note presentation to the Society of Chinese Scholars on Exercise Physiology and Fitness. 8th SCSEPF Annual conference Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China on 12-14 August 2009.
    11. Baker JS (2011) Cerebrovasculr damage in male and female boxers Invited key note presentation to the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGISTS 12th ASEP Annual National Conference September 20 - 24, 2011 University of New Mexico USA.
    12. Baker JS (2012) Novel interventions in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. Keynote speaker for the Exercise Physiology Academy Forum in Boston for the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts March 13-17th, 2012.USA
    13. Baker JS (2012) cardiovascular disease and high intensity performance theme. Youth, Exercise and Health conference. Hong Kong association for physical fitness and health. Hong Kong Conference Centre, Hong Kong, October 2012
    14. Baker JS (2013) Cardiovascular Disease and Exercise Interventions, what is the evidence for anaerobic performance incentives? Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) National Convention, Charlotte 21-25th April 2013, Charlotte Convention Centre, North Carolina, USA
    15. Baker JS (2013) Cardiovascular Disease and Exercise Interventions: Is intensity or duration the answer? Keynote speaker Global Scientific Conference on Physical Education, Health & Sports Sciences (GLOPEHSS-2013) going to be held from September 27-29, 2013 at Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India

  • Research activity output source of funding
    • Welsh office of research and development (WORD),
    • Pontypridd/Cardiff RFC,
    • Biochemical Analysis Mid - Glam Health Authority,
    • The Royal Society,
    • Welsh Rugby Union PhD,
    • Rhondda Cynon Taff Health Promotion,
    • International External PhD Candidate,
    • Medical Research Council (MRC),
    • British Association of Sport and Exercise Science,
    • Sports Council for Wales, PhD Bursary,
    • JPR research fund, match funded by Faculty of Health and Sport,
    • NHS Scotland,
    • Sports Council for Wales,
    • Scotish Government.
  • Professional Membership(s)


    Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine FRSM, Fellow of the Human Biology Association FHBA, Fellow of the Institute of Biology FIBiol, Fellow of the Institute of Clinical Research FICR, Chartered Biologist CBiol, Chartered Scientist CSci,


    Member of the Physiological Society of Great Britain, Member of the American Physiological Society, Member of the New York Academy of Sciences, Member of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Member of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB), Member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Member of the American Association of Exercise Physiologists, Member of the American College of Sports Medicine, Member of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Member of the National Sports Medicine Institute