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School-based Holocaust Education in Scotland

UWS's research on the provision of Holocaust education in schools in Scotland has helped shape future United Nations programmes, influencing teaching pedagogy in Scotland and in the international community.

Our findings have contributed to the recognition of the positive value of school based Holocaust education as evidenced in Scotland by local authorities’ provision of Continued Professional Development courses in teaching the Holocaust to teachers, and increasing the number of Scottish schools commemorating Holocaust Memorial Day.

Further, the research has contributed to the political debate on the value of school visits to the Auschwitz-Birkenau Holocaust Memorial and Museum, and educational debates on the contribution of Holocaust to Citizenship education.

 

Underpinning research

The impacts reported in this case study emerge from research spanning the period 2008-2013, and led by Dr Paula Cowan and Professor Henry Maitles. The empirical research involves young people aged 11-19, and several teachers, across Scotland and the discursive research analyses the nature of Holocaust education in Scotland and the continued relevance of the Holocaust to Scotland in schools and their communities.

The first research phase was commissioned through the Scottish Executive Education Department  and was a longitudinal study that investigated short and long term impact of Holocaust education on students’ values and attitudes. Findings provide evidence that students aged 10-12 years are open to learning about controversial issues such as the Holocaust and that their attitudes towards minority groups are more positive after they have studied the Holocaust.

The second research phase was funded by the Pears Foundation and the Holocaust Educational Trust (2008-2009) and followed a pilot study conducted by Dr Cowan in 2006 with grant support from the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland (2006). The research investigated the views of students and teachers who participated in the first Lessons From Auschwitz Project (LFAP) in Scotland. Findings suggested that school participation in the LFAP led to more school based teaching of the Holocaust and contributed significantly to developing students’ citizenship, that the curriculum was enhanced by inputs from the LFAP participants, and that teacher participation motivated their teaching of the Holocaust and Human Rights Education and contributed to their professional development. Teachers’ highest perceived gains were in their knowledge of antisemitism, genocide, human rights, Auschwitz and the Holocaust. These findings challenged the negative view visiting the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum often depicted as dark tourism and provided evidence of the positive value of this educational Project.

Further research linking the teaching of the Holocaust with citizenship issues – in particular in this case involving simulations – showed that young people aged about 12 were open to challenging aspects of discrimination that were in the simulation in their school; it further suggested that one of the key stages outlined by the UN in genocide – the identification, labelling and isolation of the ‘other’ – is worryingly easy to orchestrate, but that there are significant numbers who are unhappy about it and wanted to challenge the policy.

The discursive analyses of this research raised the profile of Holocaust education in Scotland by making comparisons with Holocaust education in England, and examining Scotland’s connections with the Holocaust. Discussion of Scottish initiatives in relation to school educational policies, practices  and priorities concluded that young people in Scotland were becoming increasingly engaged in school and community  based education, and that the curriculum, commemoration of Holocaust Memorial Day and the LFAP were principal factors in this engagement. This research conceptualizes connections to the Holocaust which is helpful to similar countries that were on the margins of the Holocaust.

Details of the impact

The research described above has impacted firstly on the development of Holocaust education in Scotland and secondly on the nature of Holocaust education in a wider international context.

The former is shown by invitations to give additional presentations or to lead CPD programmes on Holocaust education for teachers (South Ayrshire, 2011; Dundee, 2011); or to speak at schools’ events for Holocaust Memorial Day (HMD) (Glasgow City Council, 2009; Renfrewshire Council, 2010). Further, Cowan was invited on the Holocaust Memorial Day  (Scotland) Planning Group and has worked with Interfaith Scotland, the Scottish Government and Education Scotland on this Committee (since 2011) to organise the national HMD event and commemorative events for schools and the wider community. In addition, Cowan was invited to be the education advisor on a feasibility study for a Scottish Holocaust Study Centre in Glasgow (2013), funded by the Scottish Government, and has given key addresses at consultation meetings, attended by senior education managers, teachers and members of the Jewish community.

The latter is shown by Cowan’s keynote address at a UNESCO conference (Paris, 2011) on ‘Teaching difficult issues in primary schools: the example of the Holocaust’ where she addressed education managers, policy makers, teachers and academics from across Europe and also by Cowan’s appointment (in 2009) on the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance.  As a delegate to the United Kingdom, this requires Cowan to attend two annual international meetings and sit on the Academic Working Group, which comprises historians, educationalists and academics from 32 countries. Cowan advises the UK Special Envoy for Post-Holocaust issues, in ensuring that the UK continues to play a prominent role in international discussions in all Holocaust-related matters, especially those relating to education and the opening of archives, with acknowledgement of Maitles and Cowan’s research in the UK annual country report.

Following numerous presentations at national and international academic conferences and research highlighting links between Holocaust education and citizenship, Professor Maitles has been elected President-elect of Children’s Identity and Citizenship in Europe (CiCe, an EU ERASMUS network). The CiCe international coordinator has confirmed that this was in large part because of Maitles’ research linking Holocaust and citizenship. Maitles has been invited to deliver keynote addresses on Holocaust and citizenship in both Florence, Italy (2006) and at the International Educational Association of South Africa annual conference (2013). At the latter conference,  the Chief with specific responsibility for the United Nations Academic Impact initiative commented that Maitles’ research in Scotland impacted on the UN work around the ‘Unlearning Intolerance’ seminar suggestions for all UN countries. Maitles was also invited to speak at the Scottish Parliament meeting commemorating the UN International Day of Peace (2013) to MSPs, policy makers and teachers (testimonial 5). To further develop the links between the Holocaust and Citizenship learning, Cowan and Maitles edited a book for teachers and student teachers, ‘Teaching Controversial Issues in the Classroom’ (2012) endorsed below:

is a must read for educators concerned both with developing the values of an open democratic society and supporting young people to become thoughtful, empathetic, articulate, reasoned and critical individuals.”

Prof. Stuart Foster (Executive Director of the Centre for Holocaust Education at the Institute of Education)

The research conducted on the Lessons From Auschwitz Project in Scotland was the first systematic evaluation of the Project, and conducted when the future of Scotland’s participation in this Project was uncertain as the Scottish Government had not agreed to continue with its funding. This research therefore provided MSPs with evidence regarding the value of this   Project on young people, teachers, their schools and their communities. The Holocaust Educational Trust referred to this research during its discussions with representatives of the Scottish Government and research findings assisted the Holocaust Educational Trust in their understanding of the distinctive features of the Scottish curriculum and in their development of teacher-only visits to Auschwitz. The Scottish Government has since renewed and increased its funding of this Project.

References

  • Maitles, H. and Cowan, P. (2008) “Why are we learning this?”: Does Studying the Holocaust Encourage Better Citizenship Values? Genocide Studies and Prevention 3 (3): 341-352
  • Cowan, P. and Maitles, H. (2010) Policy and Practice of Holocaust Education in Scotland, Prospects, 40 (2):257-272
  • Maitles, H. (2010) Why Does Wearing A Yellow Bib Make Us Different?: A Case Study of Explaining Discrimination in a West of Scotland Secondary (High) School, Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, 8 (1): 246-261
  • Cowan, P. and Maitles, H. (2011) “We Saw Inhumanity Close Up”: What is gained by school students from Scotland visiting Auschwitz? Journal of Curriculum Studies, 43 (2):163-184
  • Maitles, H. and Cowan, P. (2012) “It reminded me of what really matters”: teacher responses to the Lessons from Auschwitz Project, Educational Review, 6 (2):131-143
  • Cowan, P. (2013) Reconceptualising the Holocaust and Holocaust Education in countries that escaped Nazi occupation: a Scottish perspective, Intercultural Education, 24 (1-2):167-179
  • Cowan, P. (2008) Learning about the Holocaust and responsible citizenship in Scotland, Race Equality Teaching, 26(2):36-39. Practitioner’s publication that focusses on race equality in education.
  • Cowan, P. (2010) Scotland’s New Approaches to Learning about the Holocaust and Racism, Race Equality Teaching, 28(2): 27-30. Practitioner’s publication that focusses on race equality in education.
  • Cowan, P. (2012) Visiting Auschwitz-Valuable Lessons or Holocaust Tourism? In Teaching Controversial Issues in the Classroom: Key Issues and Debates, edited by P. Cowan and H. Maitles,142-151, London: Continuum. Book for teachers, community educators and student teachers.
  • Cowan, P. and Maitles, H. (2012) Pedagogical Issues in Teaching the Holocaust. In Teaching Controversial Issues in the Classroom: Key Issues and Debates, edited by P. Cowan and H. Maitles,120-129, London: Continuum. Book for teachers, community educators and student teachers.
  • Davis, B.L. and Rubinstein–Avila, E. (2013) Holocaust education: global forces shaping curricula integration and implementation, Intercultural Education, 24(1-2), p.149. Academic journal that is a global forum for educational professionals with an interest in implementation of intercultural education.
  • The Holocaust Educational Trust, (2009) Never Again: How the Lessons From Auschwitz Project Impacts on Schools in Scotland, London: The Holocaust Educational Trust. http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/26234/1/strathprints026234.pdf, Report written by Cowan and Maitles
  • International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance,(2012) ITF (Taskforce for International Cooperation in Holocaust Education, Remembrance and Research), Holocaust Education, Remembrance, and Research in the United Kingdom.
  • Maitles, H. and Cowan, P. (2009) Seeing the world today from a different viewpoint: the impact of the lessons from Auschwitz project on schools in Scotland, http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/26249/
    Conference paper disseminated to academics in Europe at the CiCe conference.

Contact us

To find out more about the Vision Schools programme, email us at Visionschools@uws.ac.uk

Vision Schools Scotland

Holocaust education comprises students’ learning about and from the Holocaust. Both types of learning contribute to anti-racist education and education for citizenship, and support religious equality. Lessons from the Holocaust will engage students in wider learning that explores the contemporary relevance of the Holocaust.

Many schools across Scotland engage in Holocaust education and the aims of this programme are to promote excellence in Holocaust teaching by:

  • identifying and rewarding schools who demonstrate innovation and good practice in this area
  • encouraging the sharing of good practice of school based Holocaust education
  • promoting the importance of Continued Professional Learning in Holocaust education for Scottish teachers, helping them develop confidence and proficiency in Holocaust teaching

Vision Schools Scotland is a partnership between the University of the West of Scotland and the Holocaust Educational Trust.

Becoming a Vision School

A Vision School will be committed to the view that the Holocaust is an important part of young people’s education, while appreciating the challenges that teaching the Holocaust can raise in primary and secondary schools. Schools therefore need to demonstrate their existing commitment to the importance of Holocaust education, to developing teacher confidence in Holocaust education and achieving teacher expertise in this area.

The Vision Schools Scotland programme comprises two levels. Schools must have achieved Level 1 status before progressing to Level 2. Vision School status lasts for 3 years, after which schools are required to resubmit supporting evidence that their achieved level is being maintained.

The Education Team at the Holocaust Educational Trust contribute to evaluating Vision School applications and the development of the Programme.

Vision School - Level 1

Level 1 Vision School status will be awarded to primary and secondary schools that provide evidence that they have met the following criteria:

  • Received full support from the Senior Management Team with Holocaust education being embedded within a whole school approach
  • Exercised good practice of a sustainable approach to teaching the Holocaust (over a minimum of two consecutive years), with a clear focus on Social Studies, and meaningful connections with other curricular areas in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Scottish curriculum
  • Demonstrated an ethos where responsible citizenship is encouraged to actively address issues raised through Holocaust education. Shared and developed good practice with peers, practitioners, and/orHolocaust education providers, e.g. the Holocaust Educational Trust, the Holocaust Memorial Day Trust, local libraries and museums
  • Identified Continued Professional Learning in Holocaust education. This award may involve an external practice visit after the initial evidence has been submitted

Vision School - Level 2

Level 2 Vision School status will be awarded to primary and secondary schools who meet the following criteria:

  • Achieved Level 1 Vision School status and consistently maintained the criteria for Level 1 Young people taking an active lead as responsible citizens in their school and wider community to share their learning and address issues raised by Holocaust education
  • Participated in Continued Professional Learning in Holocaust education

Staff from Level 2 schools will be asked to be external assessors of Level 1 Vision Schools and provide mentoring and support to schools who have applied for the Vision School programme but who have not successfully met all the Level 1 criteria.

Carmyle Academy

Kyle Academy

How to Apply

Schools are required to express their interest in applying for Vision Schools Scotland accreditation before submitting their application. Expressions of interest are being accepted from 2nd October 2017 to 27th January 2018, and should be  emailed to VisionSchools@uws.ac.uk FAO Jane Caffrey.

The draft timeline is that:

  • May early June: applications are submitted
  • End of June:  schools receive notification regarding accreditation schools
  • November: successful schools awarded Vision Schools accreditation

We recommend that applicants utilise the summary section within the application form to provide their evidence for each of the criteria. This provides context to, and strengthens your submission.

Submission Guidelines

Each explained entry should be accompanied by an (electronic) attachment which is clearly labelled and or numbered so that the Vision Schools reviewers can confirm that the relevant criteria has been met. Attachments must be Word, pdf, or jpeg documents. These can include scans of extracts of school development plans, teaching plans showing IDL and time spent on Holocaust education, student work, evaluation of school practice, and other documents.

Application Forms & How to Submit

There are three ways to submit:

  • Send your complete application, with attachments and an accompanying letter on a USB to Jane Caffrey, Vision Schools Scotland, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton Campus, A722 Almada Building, Almada Street, Hamilton, ML3 0JB
  • Electronically by email to VisionSchools@uws.ac.uk (FAO Jane Caffrey). First email entitled Application Form. Second email entitled Criteria 1 (with attachments). Third email entitled Criteria 2 (with attachments) and so on until attachments for all criteria are sent
  • Electronically using Dropbox. This should be arranged as in 2 (above)

Vision Schools Application Forms

Download the application form (MS Word or pdf formats)

Checklist

Ensure that you have done the following:

  • Completed the application form
  • Included a brief explanation of your evidence in each of the five criteria boxes at the end of the application form
  • Labelled each attachment according to the criteria
  • Clearly referenced each attachment in the relevant ‘evidence’ box in the application form

Application forms should be returned to Jane Caffrey at VisionSchools@uws.ac.uk between 2nd-16th May 2018.

What to expect after applying

Schools will be notified before the end of June of the Team’s decision. The Vision Schools Team will email this information to the Head Teacher. A member of the Team will visit successful schools to discuss their application and accreditation; and provide constructive written feedback to schools whose application the Team considers to be incomplete or weak. Schools can only apply for Vision Schools accreditation once in one year.

FAQs

Q1: I have taught the Holocaust for 3 years in my school. Can I collate evidence of my teaching and my students’ learning and forward this to you?

A :No. You require to read the criteria and forward evidence that demonstrates that you have met each of the criteria. Evidence should be clearly labelled C1 (criteria 1), C2 (criteria 2), C3 (criteria 3), etc.

Q2: I teach primary 7 and teach the Holocaust to p7 pupils. Does the Holocaust require to be taught throughout the school to become a Vision School?

A:No. This is not necessary, and the Vision Schools Team would not expect the Holocaust to be taught across the primary school.

Pilot Project to Full Scale Roll-out

The School of Education has been working with schools on the Vision School pilot project since 2015. This project identified a small number of schools across the country who had demonstrated a strong commitment to Holocaust education.

Our aim is that the Vision Schools website will support primary and secondary teachers in their teaching of the Holocaust and facilitate a network of teachers in Holocaust education in Scotland. We will therefore be posting teaching material to support teachers’ Continued Professional Learning as well as useful links to other Holocaust education providers. Teachers are therefore advised to regularly check this website for updates.

Deputy First Minister John Swinney & Dr Paula Cowan

Deputy First Minister

Vision Schools Scotland Team

St. Thomas' Primary School

Grove Academy

Bishopbriggs Academy

Deputy First Minister with pupils

Last updated: 21/08/2017

Meet the team